The term dermatitis refers to various disorders characterized by a skin rash, redness and itching. The term eczema is synonymous with dermatitis but is often used to refer to atopic dermatitis.
Some types of dermatitis affect only specific parts of the body, such as seborrheic dermatitis, whereas other types, like atopic dermatitis, can appear anywhere.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin condition with acute flare-ups that occur with red patches and often severe itching. It generally develops in infants and children, leaving several scars, but can sometimes continue into adolescence and adulthood. It develops on dry, rough skin and is made worse by scratching as a result of itching. The skin becomes hard and thick, which makes it more prone to wounds or abrasions, superinfections, and worsens the lesions and itching.
People who have a close relative with atopic eczema or related diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis or food allergies are at greater risk of developing atopic dermatitis. In addition, certain environmental factors such as a dry climate or living in cities are also risk factors for developing the disease.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by redness and flaky scales on the scalp, nasolabial folds and eyebrows. It alternates between periods of relapse and remission and is characterized by a tendency for areas rich in sebaceous glands. It is one of the most common skin diseases, although there is little data about it, especially in Europe, due to the lack of precise criteria for diagnosis.
A balanced diet to prevent possible deficiencies is probably the best nutritional recommendation for the prevention or treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is an autoimmune disease that leads to red, itchy, swollen blisters. In people with dermatitis herpetiformis, glutens, proteins in foods such as wheat, rye or barley, activate the immune system, which attacks the skin, causing a rash and itching.
Blisters and hives appear mostly on the elbows, knees, buttocks, lumbar region and at the nape of the neck, but they can sometimes develop suddenly. Sometimes blisters appear on the face and neck. Because itching is severe and the skin is fragile, the blisters usually break quickly.
Whatever the type of dermatitis, the inflammation must first be soothed daily with a topical corticosteroid cream until the symptoms disappear. Then, a good emollient cream and avoiding the sun are the best maintenance treatments. Sometimes oral immunosuppressants are used in the most severe cases. In all cases, the skin is fragile and very sensitive and must be moisturized and soothed with care products suitable for fragile and intolerant skin.
Skin scars can be reversed using specific aesthetic lasers such as the non-ablative fractional laser or the CO2 laser, which restore the skin’s elasticity and firmness and effectively erase traces and scars by remodeling the dermis.