What is a pigmentation spot?
There are different types of spots that generally occur from the age of 30 onwards, which are due to the degeneration of melanin (the factor that determines the color of the skin, hair, eyes, etc.). In other words, hyperpigmentation of the skin in the form of spots.
These usually appear on:
- The face
- The décolleté
- The back of the hands
- The arms
- The shoulders and the upper back
Here is a list of the different pigmentation spots:
- Age spots or lentigo: these spots are mostly due to skin aging. Aging does not necessarily mean wrinkles. In fact, these brown spots appear when the skin is exposed to the sun. Melanin is so highly active that its production ends up being disrupted and causes hyperpigmentation of the skin in the form of unsightly spots. A thirty-year-old woman who never uses sunscreen can actually have many more spots than a 60-year-old woman who has always protected herself from UV rays.
- Pregnancy mask or melasma: this skin hyperpigmentation phenomenon occurs, as the name suggests, during pregnancy. Generally located on the forehead, chin, cheekbones and upper lip, melasma is a pigmentation disorder caused by a hormonal disturbance. These spots occur halfway through pregnancy and it is sometimes difficult to make them disappear. Melasma is also increased by sun exposure or by certain medications.
- Freckles or ephelides: freckles are genetic in origin and are often associated with very fair, pale and sun-sensitive skin. They are also found in people with very blond and red hair. Melanin causes this hyperpigmentation. Freckles are activated by the sun and are not treatable because they always return.
- Pigmentation scars: more often than not, pigmentation scars are caused by acne and can produce pink, red or brown spots on the skin.
How can pigmentation spots be erased?
Pigmentation spots are irreversible if not treated medically. At best, they can fade without disappearing for long periods of time if the skin is not exposed to the sun, but will quickly reactivate as soon as they are exposed.
The Fraxel laser: the Fraxel laser will treat the epidermis until it starts to peel in order to create new, more beautiful blemish-free skin. This laser is fractionated into micro-beams. Collagen will be stimulated for several months.
The peel: this treatment will irritate the skin and make it peel, thus generating a second skin with an even tone.
The fractional CO2 laser: this rather abrasive treatment is based on the same operating principle as the Fraxel laser, with the difference that it uses carbon dioxide to peel the skin.